بحوث علمية 2018 Ibb Governorate, Dī al-Ṣawla’(ذي الصولع - اب - اليمن) اكتشاف اثري مذهل
Governorate, Dī al-Ṣawla’
In August the local, Ibrahīm Thabit al-῾Arāsī, directed the attention of Kathryn Kelley to some rock images and Sabaic graffiti, as well as clandestine excavations, 1.5 km north-north-east of the village of al-Mān, 600 m south-east of the southern edge of the village of Dī al-Ṣawla’and some 6 km east-north-east of Ẓafār. Our visit was limited to little more than an hour on the western edge of this area known as al-Ruẓma.
Two concentrations of musnad graffiti lie on the south-west slope of the Ǧebel al-Ṣawla’ approximately 60 m north-east of a 10 x 30 m gardening terrace. A bulldozed track follows the foot of the slope along the south-west flank leading to Bayt al-Ḥabūb to the south-south-east. The two groups lie horizontally some 15 m apart on the slope, one above the other. From the road, the site is a 10 to 15 minute climb. Clandestine scrapings are visible on the slope and on top of the mountain may reflect a search for tombs.
The first group (hereafter site 1), consisting of a variety of rock-cut images and graffiti, (UTM 38p 1573776n, 442196e =14° 14.223'n, 44° 27.286'e) occurs on the western and south-western faces of numerous boulders. Above, to the north-east (UTM 1573795n, 442199e=14°14.107’n, 44°27.853’e) the second and most impressive group (site 2) shows numerous figures scratched into the black patinated igneous rock.
At Site 1, a variety of themes and types occur, scattered across the boulders for approximately 25 m, often in superimposed layers. Many of the figures are severely weathered, and many appear incomplete. All are revarnished. We can show only a few of the figures here. Some are heavily pecked, others by means of fine-line incising. Some have been anciently defaced by pecking.
One boulder (Fig. 2.32) exhibits four bovids facing left with human figures holding the tails of two or three. Deep splits in the rock divide the composition into small vignettes. A fourth similar figure above is incompletely preserved.
Certain figural groups are sketchier in terms of preservation or execution, such as a hound chasing an antelope (Fig. 2.33).
Complicated to the point of non-recognisability are patterns overlying an inscription and figures (above, Fig. 2.34) which obviously accumulated over time. This panel contains a box-like quadruped and a partly executed more naturalistic animal (gazelle?) as well as grid lines and geometric patterns which overlie other figures.
Nearly as complicated is a figure formed of two triangles which appears to brandish a sword with the left hand, a lozenge-shaped or circular shield with the right, and at the waist possibly a third weapon (Fig. 2.35). Just before the waist a horse-like quadruped appears which faces right, partly overlapping and in a smaller scale. Visible are the mane, back, rump, tail four striding legs. The upper part of the panel shows randomly displayed bovoid horn pairs.
For better or worse these figures find no close relatives among other rock images in South Arabia (Inizan-Rachad ).
Unlike site 1, 2 is comprised of a concentration of figural representations so numerous as to suggest a narrative, owing to their proximity and interaction with each other. Unfortunately both ends of the scene are missing. This better preserved and single-layered composition occurs on the western face of a horizontally positioned 1.1 x 0.35 m stone (Fig. 2.36a,b). A series of 12 human figures interact with bovoid composite creatures. The human figures hold with upraised arms what appear to be striking weapons. One figure in the top centre clearly holds a club in the left hand, the right hand with outstretched fingers. Some of the figures are grasping the tails of the bovoids with one hand. Although some figure face right, he general appearance is of a disorganised movement of humans and animals from right to left in two tiers. Some of the animals are incompletely sketched or preserved.
The largest human stands below centre, twice as large as the others. Its right hand grasps a group of eight circular objects of unknown identity and the tail of the quadruped to its right; the left raises a baton in front of the face of the only rampant horned quadruped. The figure dons a garment rendered by means of hatched lines of which its lower hem is emphasized – perhaps rolled. At the right edge of the garment a spoon-like image hangs; opposite this a hatched hem of the garment is suspended. Other humans differ in their garb. At least seven wear bands crossing their torsos. The human figures show a variety of poses standing, striding in a Knielauf pose. One of the 'bandolier' figures lies supine and dishevelled beneath the feet of the main figure and the rampant quadruped. The animals are horned striding quadrupeds with beak-like noses. Common details include characteristic crescent-shaped horns depicted in outline with both end points facing roughly upwards. Hatched bands around the necks of five of the quadrupeds suggest domesticity. Their bodies are patterned in a variety of ways. Some show circles or wavy lines. The tails are similarly rendered in shape and length; they curve and hang downward. Four gaits are depicted walking, rampant, extended trot; one is being dragged backwards. The humans appear to interact with the animals and not with each other. Generally, they grab the tail or horns of the quadrupeds. One figure grasps the horn of the rampant bovoid and appears to leap over or stand upon it. Especially the 'bandolier' figures find parallels in Sabaean painted terracotta small sculpture (lecture D’arne O’Neill, 11 June ) which loosely establishes the relative date of site 2. More than any other OSA scene known to the writers, this one suggests a mythological narrative, the meaning of which has long been forgotten. First, it contrasts with the usual random arrangement of figures characteristic of rock art in general. Second, it shows an unusual attention to detail in garb, gesture and indication of rank. These would be necessary if the different figural groups and scenes depicted characters known to the artist and contemporaries.
المصدر: منتدي صور حب
|الكلمات الدليلية (Tags)|
|Governorate, Dī, alṢawla’(ذي, الصولع, اليمن), اكتشاف, اثري, مذهل|
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